Fail #16: Neuromythen

Neuromythen sind verbreitete Annahmen über das Lernen, die einer wissenschaftlichen Überprüfung nicht standhalten können.

Die folgenden Ausführungen entstammen einer Untersuchung  die im August 2017 in „Frontiers of Psychology“ veröffentlicht wurde.

Die Hauptgruppe der verbreitetsten Mythen

Die folgenden Annahmen über das Lernen sind weit verbreitet, haben sich aber als falsch erwiesen:

  1. Menschen lernen besser, wenn sie die Informationen in ihrem bevorzugten Lernstil erhalten, z.B. hören, sehen, anfassen. (Individuals learn better when they receive information in their preferred learning style.)
  2. Kinder haben Lernstile, die durch bestimmte Sinne beherrscht werden. (Children have learning styles that are dominated by particular senses.)
  3. Ein verbreitetes Anzeichen von Leseschwäche ist, Buchstaben verkehrt herum zu sehen. (A common sign of dyslexia is seeing letters backwards.)
  4. Wenn Kinder klassische Musik hören, verbessert sich ihre Denkfähigkeit. (Listening to classical music increases children’s reasoning ability.)
  5. Wenn Kinder überzuckerte Drinks oder speisen zu sich genommen haben, sind sie weniger aufmerksam. (Children are less attentive after consuming sugary drinks and/or snacks.)
  6. Die einen Menschen sind „linkshemisphärisch“, die anderen „rechtshemisphärisch“, und das erklärt Unterschiede im Lernen. (Some of us are “left-brained” and some are “right-brained,” and this helps explain differences in learning.)
  7. Wir nutzen nur 10 % unseres Gehirns. (We only use 10% of our brain.)

Überblick über sämtliche untersuchten Mythen

Das ist eine Einladung zum Selbstversuch: Die folgenden 32 Aussagen – sie enthalten auch die sieben obigen – haben sich entweder als wahr oder als falsch erwiesen. Die Lösungen (true or false) folgen unterhalb.

1 We use our brains 24 h a day.
2 It is best for children to learn their native language before a second language is learned.
3 Boys have bigger brains than girls, on average.
4 If students do not drink sufficient amounts of water, their brains shrink.
5 When a brain region is damaged, other parts of the brain can take up its function.
6 We only use 10% of our brain.
7 The left and right hemispheres of the brain work together.
8 Some of us are “left-brained” and some are “right-brained” and this helps explains differences in how we learn.
9 The brains of boys and girls develop at different rates.
10 Brain development has finished by the time children reach puberty.
11 There are specific periods in childhood after which certain things can no longer be learned.
12 Information is stored in the brain in networks of cells distributed throughout the brain.
13 Learning is due to the addition of new cells to the brain.
14 Individuals learn better when they receive information in their preferred learning style (e.g., auditory, visual, kinesthetic).
15 Learning occurs through changes to the connections between brain cells.
16 Academic achievement can be negatively impacted by skipping breakfast.
17 A common sign of dyslexia is seeing letters backwards.
18 Normal development of the human brain involves the birth and death of brain cells.
19 Mental capacity is genetic and cannot be changed by the environment or experience.
20 Vigorous exercise can improve mental function.
21 Children must be exposed to an enriched environment from birth to three years or they will lose learning capacities permanently.
22 Children are less attentive after consuming sugary drinks and/or snacks.
23 Circadian rhythms (“body-clock”) shift during adolescence causing students to be tired during the first lessons of the school day.
24 Exercises that rehearse coordination of motor-perception skills can improve literacy skills.
25 Extended rehearsal of some mental processes can change the structure and function of some parts of the brain.
26 Children have learning styles that are dominated by particular senses (i.e., seeing, hearing, touch).
27 Learning problems associated with developmental differences in brain function cannot be improved by education.
28 Production of new connections in the brain can continue into old age.
29 Short bouts of motor coordination exercises can improve integration of left and right hemisphere brain function.
30 There are specific periods in childhood when it’s easier to learn certain things.
31 When we sleep, the brain shuts down.
32 Listening to classical music increases children’s reasoning ability.

Und hier die Antworten:

1 We use our brains 24 h a day True.
2 It is best for children to learn their native language before a second language is learned False.
3 Boys have bigger brains than girls, on average True.
4 If students do not drink sufficient amounts of water, their brains shrink False.
5 When a brain region is damaged, other parts of the brain can take up its function True.
6 We only use 10% of our brain. False.
7 The left and right hemispheres of the brain work together True.
8 Some of us are “left-brained” and some are “right-brained” and this helps explains differences in how we learn False.
9 The brains of boys and girls develop at different rates True.
10 Brain development has finished by the time children reach puberty False.
11 There are specific periods in childhood after which certain things can no longer be learned False.
12 Information is stored in the brain in networks of cells distributed throughout the brain True.
13 Learning is due to the addition of new cells to the brain False.
14 Individuals learn better when they receive information in their preferred learning style (e.g., auditory, visual, kinesthetic) False.
15 Learning occurs through changes to the connections between brain cells True.
16 Academic achievement can be negatively impacted by skipping breakfast True.
17 A common sign of dyslexia is seeing letters backwards False.
18 Normal development of the human brain involves the birth and death of brain cells True.
19 Mental capacity is genetic and cannot be changed by the environment or experience False.
20 Vigorous exercise can improve mental function True.
21 Children must be exposed to an enriched environment from birth to three years or they will lose learning capacities permanently False.
22 Children are less attentive after consuming sugary drinks and/or snacks False.
23 Circadian rhythms (“body-clock”) shift during adolescence causing students to be tired during the first lessons of the school day True.
24 Exercises that rehearse coordination of motor-perception skills can improve literacy skills False.
25 Extended rehearsal of some mental processes can change the structure and function of some parts of the brain True.
26 Children have learning styles that are dominated by particular senses (i.e., seeing, hearing, touch) False.
27 Learning problems associated with developmental differences in brain function cannot be improved by education False.
28 Production of new connections in the brain can continue into old age True.
29 Short bouts of motor coordination exercises can improve integration of left and right hemisphere brain function False.
30 There are specific periods in childhood when it’s easier to learn certain things True.
31 When we sleep, the brain shuts down False.
32 Listening to classical music increases children’s reasoning ability False.

 

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